Thursday, June 19, 2008

Friday, March 21, 2008

The Santiago Enigma - the early days

This collection is still in its infancy! - update August 2011 
Postby PILGRIMSPLAZA on August 20th, 2011, 8:26 am 

TerryB wrote: Was he Priscillian?

Just found a few exciting texts:

In - search: Priscilien:
e) The shrine of Br François
It was in 1924 when his body was brought to the chapel.
f) The relics of St Priscilien
In front of the tomb of Fr François we have the remains of St Priscilien, a martyr of the fourth century. This is due to the reopening and discovering of the Catacombs in Rome in the XIXth century. Monsignor Épalle, who had been one of the first pupils of Fr Champagnat, brought them from Rome and gave them to the house of L’Hermitage.

In ... chive.html - search: Priscilien:
The forest around the legendary castle of Muntsalvaesche was called Briciljan. Near Montsegur is a small forest called the Priscilien Wood. [ 42°52′20″N 1°50′03″E ]

Is this Priscillian, Priscilien or Briciljan ‘our’ Priscillian of Ávila, Trier, Mondoñedo and/or SdC?

Truth is a pathless land - Jiddu Krishnamurti . More on the
history of Saint James

User avatar PILGRIMSPLAZA - 160 or more postsPosts: 202
Joined: February 7th, 2008, 10:44 am - Location: the Netherlands The Hague


update July 2010
In a christian (book) shop in The Hague:
Is there a book on the essence of The Santiago Enigma? - No!
Will such a book ever be written? - No!
Isn't that very strange? - Yes!
Why are you so sure about this? - I was asked this question twice before and I discussed it with a few bishops in America.


Pilgrimage is of all people, faiths, sferes and ages - for hunters, gatherers and smorgasbordians:
Er is geen weg naar de vrede; vrede is de weg - Simon Vinkenoog
Truth is a pathless land - Jiddu Krishnamurti
On August 3, 1929, the opening day of the annual Star Camp at Ommen, Holland, Krishnamurti dissolved his Order of the Star in the East (founded 1911).
Bryn Mawr College * (Bryn Mawr Classical Review) sends me their many book reviews. Recently an interesting source for further understanding of the last tabu (as defined above) arrived: - 2009.12.31:

Tessa Rajak, Translation and Survival: The Greek Bible of the Ancient Jewish Diaspora. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. Pp. xvi, 380. ISBN 9780199558674 - Reviewed by Reinhart Ceulemans, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven

"The aim of this book, the origins of which lie in six Grinfield lectures on the Septuagint delivered by the author at the University of Oxford in 1995-1996, is to combine two fields of study that are very related but which tend to be treated rather separately: that of Hellenistic diaspora Judaism, on the one hand, and that of the Jewish Greek Bible, commonly referred to as the Septuagint, on the other. The author herself, an authority in the field of diaspora Judaism, has hitherto not written extensively on matters pertaining to the Septuagint. Blaming the traditional separation of the two topics on the Christian takeover of the Septuagint, Rajak insists on the need to interpret the Greek Bible in light of what is known of the historical group that created it. In doing so, she focuses on cultural adaption in Hellenistic Judaism and on how the Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible was a means of cultural survival for its creators. - Rajak's attempt to reunite the Greek Bible with its primary users and generators (cf. 5) is successful. She has written a very interesting book, containing opinions and conclusions that challenge standard views and catch the reader's attention. Future scholarship will surely benefit from the insights that emerge from reading the Septuagint with an awareness of the broader history of Hellenistic Judaism. A wide range of topics is tackled over the course of eight chapters, preceded by an introduction that provides both an overview of the book's structure and some general thoughts on a few of the Septuagint's main characteristics (text, canon, etc.). This introductory discussion may orient the reader who is less experienced in the field of Septuagint studies." […]
"In the last two chapters, Rajak changes the perspective and investigates what reactions, if any, these Greek holy writings of Hellenistic Jewry prompted in contemporary other religious groups, namely pagan Greeks and early Christians. In Chapter 8 she sets herself the goal to verify, on the basis of the written evidence itself, the accepted view that pagan Greeks and Romans ignored Jewish Scripture. Listing the (rather limited) evidence from Egyptian and Roman writers and magical texts, she concludes that 'the Septuagint did not emerge from or into the confines of an enclosed ghetto. A basis of curiosity and awe may be inferred in Greek circles sufficient [...] to generate the dynamic of [...] the public reception of the Jewish Bible in the early stages of Judaism' (277). The ninth and final chapter questions the abandonment theory, according to which the Hellenistic Jewish community dropped the Septuagint when it started to be used by Christians. She dismisses previous acceptance of that theory, since it is based upon early Christian, hence suspicious, ideological roots and upon the unwarranted presumption that investigations into Jewish reception history in the first centuries of the Christian era should turn to rabbinic writings. Then again (although Rajak seems to avoid stating it in so many words), the actual evidence informing us about this non-rabbinic, Greek Jewish reception is virtually non-existent and needs to be deduced from Christian authors such as Origen. Reinterpreting some of these early Christian passages, Rajak concludes that contemporary Hellenistic Jews knew a diversity of Greek versions and that variety was more prominent than standardization. These Greek Jewish versions, of which those of Aquila, Symmachus and Theodotion were but a few amongst many, were created in order to reduce textual corruption, to bring the existing versions in closer alignment to the Hebrew, and to serve promotional goals. In other words, Rajak argues, the abandonment theory has to be sacrificed for the benefit of a recognition of Jewish 'creative production of different types of Bible translation' in the early Christian era (313)." […]
PPS: At the same time the explaining few phrases in italics (below on this weblog) were confirmed by an expert as being cristal clear and to the point.
Merry Christmas! ***
Quote of the year by my neighbour Erik Jan de Jong:
"The origin may be vague, but the veneration is real"
* "At Bryn Mawr Miss King became a tradition and a cult; now she is a legend."

30 titels op het Santiagoforum in chronologische en alfabetische volgorde van 8-2-8 tot 7-8-9.

Faces in the London Pórtico de la Gloria - All these faces are cut out of pictures of the plaster copy in the Victoria & Albert Museum at London of the Pórtico de la Gloria in Saint James's cathedral at Santiago de Compostela in Spain. Courtesy and © (permission given on 22-5-9) of Mr. Gareth Thomas who took these on the eve of his pilgrimage from England through France to Santiago.

The Santiago Enigma was posted on the Santiago Pilgrim Forum [search: PILGRIMSPLAZA] and six Yahoo pilgrim forum groups [search: pilgrimsplaza] : ; ; ; ; ; ;

Anybody can watch something very special in the Pórtico de la Gloria in Santiago de Compostela and the discussion on the Santiago Pilgrim Forum is already 'hot'. Reading The Way of Saint James by Georgiana Goddard King (now reprinted) helps finding answers on some intriguing questions. Reading before walking helps best! A new review in English is posted now. A Dutch pilgrim just sent us the diagram of the Pórtico and it's posted here. You are kindly invited to write a review too!
Update Summer 2009 - Search user’s posts
The Santiago Enigma
1. Why Santiago or Fisterra?
2. Why Saint James or Priscillian?
3. Why millions of secular pilgrims?
4. What Enigma in the Pórtico de la Gloria?

5. How jewish Jacobus became catholic James
6. More reviews of The Way of Saint James coming
7. Here is #1: Ja’akov and Jacobus – is the name a sign?
The Messianic Legacy
Towards the end of Summer 2008 I found clear answers on my last open question: 'Who really constituted Jesus' following?', in part ONE chapter 6 The formation of Christianity in The Messianic Legacy (sequel to The Holy Blood and The Holy Grail) by Baigent, Leigh & Lincoln, 1986, ISBN 0-552-13182-2, price: from €1,53 up . A few quotes:
[95] Acts offers a more or less reliable historic account of Paul's dispute with the Nazarean Party, which would culminate in nothing less than an entirely new religion.
[96] By A.D. 38, Jesus was being openly proclaimed as the Messiah -- not the Son of God but simply the rightful and anointed king -- by Nazarean refugees, or perhaps established communities, as far away as Antioch. It was here, in the Syrian capital far to the north of Damascus, that the term 'Christian' was to be applied to them for the first time. Until then, they had simply been called Nazareans. And they continued to be called Nazareans elsewhere -- especially Jerusalem -- for many years. In A.D. 38, a centralised Nazarean authority was already well established in Jerusalem. By later Christian chroniclers, this administrative hierarchy was to become known as 'the Early Church'. Its most famous member, was, of course, Peter. Its official head, [97] however, conspicuously neglected by later tradition, was Jesus's brother Jacob, known subsequently as Saint James, or James the Just. By this time, the Magdalene, the Virgin and others of those closest to Jesus had disappeared, and there is no further mention of them in scriptural accounts. It is certainly reasonable to suppose that later assertions are accurate and that they sought refuge in exile. What is significant, however, is that it is not Peter, but Jesus's brother James who presides over the 'Church' in Jerusalem. Quite clearly, some principle of dynastic succession is at work. And it can hardly be coincidental that James is referred to as 'Zadok'.4

[97] The Nazarean Party
Jesus himself, of course, had had no intention of creating a new religion. Neither had James and the Nazarean Party in Jerusalem. Like Jesus, they would have ben horrified by the very idea, regarding it as the most appalling blasphemy. Like Jesus, they were, after all, devout Jews, working and preaching wholly within the context of established Judaic tradition.
True, they were seeking certain renewed observances, certain reforms and certain political changes. They were also seeking to purge their religion of recently acquired alien elements and to restore it to what they deemed its orginal purity. But they would not have dreamed of creating a new system of belief which might become a rival of Judaism -- and, worse still, its persecutor.
Nevertheless, it is clear that the Nazarean Party in Jerusalem was considered subversive, both by the Romans and by the official Sadducee establishment, for it was quickly in trouble with the authorities. As we have already noted, Stephen was stoned to deatch within a short time of the Crucifixion, and Saul of
[98] Tarsus was pursuing Nazareans in Damascus. Around A.D. 44, Peter, then John, then all the others were arrested, flogged and ordered not to speak the name of Jesus. In the same year, the disciple known as James, brother of John, was arrested and beheaded -- a form of execution which only the Romans were allowed to perform. By the following year, guerilla activity on the part of the Zealots had intensified to such a degree that Rome was obliged to take vigorous countermeasures.
By A.D. 48-9 the Roman Governor of Judaea was seizing and crucifying both Zealots and Nazareans indiscriminately. Nevertheless, the disturbances increased. In A.D. 52, the Roman Legate of Syria -- the immediate superior of the Governor of Judea -- had to intervene personally to prevent a full-scale insurrection.
In fact, the insurrection was simply delayed, not prevented. By A.D. 54-5, militant activity had again assumed epidemic proportions. The Sadducee High Priest, appointed by the Romans, was assassinated by the Zealots, and a major terrorist campaign was launched against other Sadducees who had aligned themselves with Rome. During A.D. 57-8, another Messiah appeared, said to have come from the Jewish community in Egypt. Having gained a substantial following in Judaea, he undertook to occupy Jerusalem by force of arms and drive the Romans from the Holy Land. Not surprisingly, this enterprise was violently thwarted, but the disturbances continued. At last, around A.D. 62-5, James, head of the Nazarean Party in Jerusalem, was seized and executed.

[100] Paul as the First Heretic (…)
[101] Around A.D. 39 Paul returns to Jerusalem. Here, according to Acts, he is officially admitted to the Nazarean Party. According to Paul himself, however, in his letter to the Galatians, his reception into the [102] Nazarean Party was rather less than enthusiastic. He admits that they did not trust him and avoided him. But he is accorded some sort of grudging acceptance by 'James, the brother of the Lord', who dispatched him to Tarsus, to preach there. From Tarsus, Paul continues his missionary journey, which lasts some fourteen years and takes him across virtually the whole of he eastern Mediterranean world -- not only throughout the Holy Land, but to Asia Minor as well, and across the sea to Greece. One would expect such energy to earn him the approval of the Nazarean hierarchy in Jerusalem. On the contrary, however, he was earned nothing but their displeasure. James and the Nazarean hierarchy send their own missionaries in his wake, to undo his preaching and compromises him with his own converts -- for Paul, by now, is preaching something very different from what the Nazareans themselves, under Jesus's brother, have sanctioned. Harassed by James's emissaries, Paul at last returns to Jerusalem, where a full-scale dispute ensues. Eventually, after considerable friction, an uneasy agreement is concludes between James and Paul, but Paul, soon after, is arrested -- or placed in protective custody. Taking advantage of his status as a Roman citizen, Paul demands that his case be heard by the Emperor personally and is sent as a prisoner to Rome. He is believed to have died there some time between A.D. 64 and 67.

[455] Eisenman, R.H., Maccabees, Zadokites, Christians and Qumran (Leiden, 1983) [469] - 4 Eisenman, Maccabeus …, p.5, referring to Eusibius, History 2:23. Note that in Arabic James is Saddiq Ja'aqob (Eisler, Messiah Jesus, p.499)."
Bible quotes
Acts 11 - 25 Then Barnabas went to Tarsus to look for Saul, 26 and when he found him, he brought him to Antioch. So for a whole year Barnabas and Saul met with the church and taught great numbers of people. The disciples were called Christians first at Antioch.
Handelingen 11 - 25 Barnabas vertrok naar Tarsus om Saulus op te zoeken. Toen hij hem had gevonden, ging hij met hem naar Antiochië. 26 Daar waren zij samen een heel jaar bij de volgelingen van Jezus te gast en gaven vele mensen onderwijs. In Antiochië werden de volgelingen van Jezus Christus voor het eerst 'christenen' genoemd.

Summarized in a few paragraphes it all boils down to this:

"St. James was never converted to Christianity or Catholicism because it did not yet exist during his lifetime. James was and remained a faithful Jew for all his life, just like all apostles. He saw in Jesus the fulfillment of the prophecies about the coming of the Messiah in the Old Testament. Probably he felt even more a religious Jew than before he met Jesus. That most Jews did not share his opinion made no difference to that.

During his lifetime there were no Christians as we know them or a Christian church. Even Jesus did not mean to create a new religion. He preached in the synagogues and only after he was not accepted there he started to work outside the synagogues.

A Christian church as we know it arose only when Jews and followers from other nations and cultures formed communities and a hierarchical organization you can speak of a Christian church. But that was only after St. James and many other apostles had already died or were executed. Of course the apostles really were the founders of the Christian church. But they saw themselves not as Christians, but as Jews who had accepted the Messiah.

So they saw themselves not as converts, but as Jewish believers to whom Jesus had given a new dimension to the religion they and their ancestor always adhered."
This online book may offer some more clues: Aliens and Sojourners: Self as Other in Early Christianity - by Benjamin H. Dunning
"Early Christians spoke about themselves as resident aliens, strangers, and sojourners, asserting that otherness is a fundamental part of being Christian. But why did they do so and to what ends? How did Christians' claim to foreign status situate them with respect to each other and to larger Roman world as the new movement grew and struggled to make sense of its own boundaries?"
Georgiana's Gems for a complete compilation of what Ms King writes in all her three Volumes on bees and many other items.

The Way of Saint James

Flip Book & TXT versions:

Go to the Flip Book for easy reading or the TXT version for quick browsing:
To the full index ;
To my English homepage
To my Dutch homepage ;
To my e-mail address > Comments 1

Diagram Pórtico de la Gloria and plaster copy in London - ; ; ; htttp:// 24 Figura barbuda acostada sobre el pecho y dos leones, ¿Noé?
27 Profeta Daniel, sonriente
31 Apóstol Santiago el Menor, con doble túnica
50 Cinco figuritas que son: Adán desnudo al lado del Salvador; Abraham con el índice levantado, y los patriarcas Isaac, Jacob y Judá todos con coronas
51 Cinco figuritas que son: Eva desnuda, Moisés, Aarón, David y Salomón
103 Estatua con túnica ceñida. Es la hermosa reina Esther

Ps: For our Dutch readers: and

Saturday, December 22, 2007

PILGRIMSPLAZA for Georgiana Goddard King's Early Days on her one & only Way of Saint James

Pilgrimage is of all people, faiths, sferes and ages - for hunters, gatherers and smorgasbordians © © © © © © © © © home:

This collection is still in its infancy!

Pilgrimage is of all people, faiths, sferes and ages - for hunters, gatherers and smorgasbordians:
Er is geen weg naar de vrede; vrede is de weg - Simon Vinkenoog
Truth is a pathless land - Jiddu Krishnamurti

New: :
- all PILGRIMSPLAZA posts on the big forum at Santiago de Compostela

Faces in the London Pórtico de la Gloria - All these faces are cut out of pictures of the plaster copy in the Victoria & Albert Museum at London of the Pórtico de la Gloria in Saint James's cathedral at Santiago de Compostela in Spain. Courtesy and © (permission given on 22-5-9) of Mr. Gareth Thomas who took these on the eve of his pilgrimage from England through France to Santiago.

'King' reprinted!

The Way of Saint James (Georgiana Goddard King, 1920) now reprinted! This three volume set has been reprinted by Pilgrims Progress and is now widely available. See and
More details (prices, ISBN) in 4th Comment below.
January 30th, 2008 (Photo from La Voz de Galicia)
La Voz de Galicia reports today that for the first time since statistics where collected in 1985 that there are more foreigners receiving the compostela than Spaniards. The article focuses on the fact that last year, 58.700 foreigners recieved the compostela and “only” 55 326 Spaniards. The articles also mentions that pilgrims from 121 countries received the compostela in 2007.

[Introduction for our Dutch readers: PILGRIMSPLAZA neemt u mee naar The Early Days van Georgiana Goddard King in haar 3 jaren veldwerk voor The Way of Saint James [1920/1980] over veelal ongebaande wegen toen er nog geen pelgrimspaden waren. Pelgrims naar Santiago de Compostela liepen eeuwenlang meestal niet voor hun plezier maar voor straf naar Noordwest-Spanje. Hun voetstappen liggen in Frankrijk dus allang begraven onder de Routes Nationales. De recente ruime verspreiding van Kings werk op het internet triggert een revival voor haar onovertroffen meesterwerk. Ook uw bespreking daarvan is zeer welkom op!]

American pilgrims 2007 (!)
If you were not able to attend, you can get some sense of what you missed by browsing through the beautiful program (PDF, 700KB): Pilgrimage to America - Gathering of Pilgrims - Williamsburg, Virginia - March 9-11, 2007 (!) ;

Some subjects from the program:

Pilgrimage in Classical Greece and Rome”—Barbette Spaeth, chair of the department of classical studies at William & Mary, explores the modes of pilgrimage in traditional Greek and Roman religions with telling examples from Corinth, Egypt and throughout the classical world.

Prayer and pilgrimage”—Rev. Michael Wyatt, Chair of American Pilgrims on the Camino, former Canon Theologian at the National Cathedral in Washington, DC, and now at St. John’s Episcopal Church in What does it mean to walk for spiritual reasons? What about religious reasons? Explore together what methods help us remain both open and focused as pilgrims.
Pilgrims and Crusaders”—Phil Daileader, a nationally known authority on the Crusades, is also the scholar behind the distinguished lectures on The Early Middle Ages and The High Middle Ages from The Great Courses audio series. He received his doctorate in medievalhistory from Harvard University in 1996, and has been teaching at William and Mary since 1998. He specializes in the social and cultural history of Mediterranean Europe.
Pilgrimage in the Islamic Tradition”—John Williams will speak on pilgrimage in the Islamic tradition, travel for transformation by a faith community which undertakes the hajj to Mecca as a sacred duty for every believer. John is professor emeritus of religious studies at the College of William & Mary and a specialist in the Islamic tradition. His books include The World of Islam, Themes of Islamic Civilization and Roman Catholics and Shi’i Muslims.
Next Step - 2008 (!) Gathering and Hospitalero Training - Mission Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California - March, 2008 (!) -
Pilgrims on the Camino American - Our mission is to foster the enduring traditions of the Camino by supporting its infrastructure, by gathering pilgrims together, and by providing information and encouragement to past and future pilgrims. American Pilgrims continually seeks meaningful ways to support the Camino de Santiago de Compostela. ; ; or American Pilgrims on the Camino, Attn: Gathering, 1514 Channing Avenue, Palo Alto CA 94303, USA

Georgiana Goddard King (1871-1939) (large picture below)
Georgiana Goddard King established the department of the History of Art at Bryn Mawr College in 1913. She received a BA in English and a MA in philosophy and political science from Bryn Mawr College and began teaching art history at Bryn Mawr around 1910 at the request of President M. Carey Thomas [small picture]. Although Professor King’s interests were wide-ranging and included Asian and modern art, her main passion was the art
of Spain; Bryn Mawr thus became the first institution in the United States to offer graduate courses on Spanish art. During her tenure, many future art historians of note commenced their careers at Bryn Mawr, among them Richard Bernheimer, Joseph Curtis Sloane and Alexander Soper. Professor King’s publications include The Way of St. James, Sardinian Painting and the posthumously published Heart of Spain.

The author on All Soul's Day 1917 at Bryn Mawr College: I have made one straight story out of three years' wanderings, and places visited and revisited. The outcome offers, first, a record of what exists, where other accounts are incomplete or inaccessible, and, secondly, an explanation of it. Spain is a long way off, and pictures are not always explicit. It has taken seven years of my life. The writer's contribution, in particular, is first, a record and interpretation of iconographic detail all along the way, e. g., at Leyre from observation, at Santiago from Aymery Picaud's account; second, an attempt to date, by comparison with such dated examples as exist, without any a priori; third and last, an occasional small hypothesis and the ground for it, e. g., about the original west front at Compostella, and the cult of Santiago. [picture of Miss King courtesy of Bryn Mawr College]

SONG from The Way Of Perfect Love p17/18 - GGK

Something calls and whispers, along the city street,
Through shrill cries of children and soft stir of feet,
And makes my blood to quicken and makes my flesh to pine.
The mountains are calling; the winds wake the pine.

Past the quivering poplars that tell of water near
e long road is sleeping, the white road is clear.
Yet scent and touch can summon, afar from brook and tree,
The deep boom of surges, the gray waste of sea.

Sweet to dream and linger, in windless orchard close,
On bright brows of ladies to garland the rose,
But all the time are glowing, beyond this little world,
The still light of planets and the star-swarms whirled.


An American Pioneer in Hispanic Studies: GEORGIANA GODDARD KING - Harold E. Wethey - Parnassus, Vol. 11, No. 7 (Nov., 1939), pp. 33-35 - doi:10.2307/771955 -
* "At Bryn Mawr Miss King became a tradition and a cult; now she is a legend."
* (…) “Miss King’s first love was literature, and she remained throughout her life a voracious reader of Spanish, French, and Italian as well as of English literature. Her first printed works were poems which appeared in Harper’s and other journals. Her early play in verse, The Way of Perfect Love (1908), she lightly brushed aside in later life as **“an indiscretion of my youth.” Her admiration of the poetry of Robert Brown was strong and enduring, and it played no inconsiderable part in the formation of her own succint yet richly colored style. Her taste was catholic. She was among the earliest devotees of Gertrude Stein, and wrote a criticism of Three Lives (1908). Miss Stein and Miss King had become friends in Baltimore when Miss Stein was studying in the Medical School at Johns Hopkins (1900-1903). Their meeting in Spain before the World War is recorded in The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas. Although Miss King’s academic training was literary, she developed an interest in art when a young woman. (…) [Gertrud Stein by Picasso:]

The exact circumstances which led her to Spain, neither her old friends nor her relatives remember. Her first printed venture into Spain and the Fine Arts was a new edition of G. E. Street’s Gothic Architecture in Spain, published in 1914. She retraced the steps of the English architect of the nineteenth century, and added lengthy notes at the end of each chapter, bringing the book up-to-date by the inclusion of newly discovered facts and materials. She also drew attention to Pre-Romanesque churches and to Gothic paintings of which Street had made no mention. In 1916 Miss King published more material on the English architect: George Edmund Street, Unpublished Notes and Reprinted Papers. Here she included her biography of Street, his notebooks of architectual tours through France and Italy, and two articles which had appeared in periodicals. (…) “ [Read about the early days of Mr Street's pilgrimage in Spain below.] ,

Some account of Gothic architecture in Spain by George Edmund Street (1824-1881); edited by Georgiana Goddard King (1914) (title page Volume I left) ; (Vol. II)

Ms King writes in Bryn Mawr, Vigil of S. Andrew [29-11], 1912 in her INTRODUCTORY NOTE: 'This book is not mine. If I ever write a book about Spain it will be a different one, and not so good a one-and whether I like it or not, it will be based on this.'

Some aspects of Miss King's life
"Architectural historian of Spain, professor and founder, Department of Art, Bryn Mawr. King was born the daughter of a railroad employee, Morris Ketchum King and raised in Norfolk, Virginia. Her mother, an educated woman with literary interests, died when King was ten. King and her brother and sisters were raised by their maternal aunt. She attended the Leach-Wood Seminary, a boarding school for girls in Norfolk catering to serious education. Her teachers encouraged her to attend Bryn Mawr, the first woman's college to offer graduate degrees."

"She was promoted to lecturer in 1911. That same year she resolved to learn photography in order to document works of art she studied. King founded a separate department of the history of art in 1913 in which the first graduate courses on Spanish art in the United States were offered. She knew the subject well, having re-edited between 1911 and 1914 Some Account of Gothic Architecture in Spain (1865) of George Edmund Street."

"She lectured in her black academic robe long after the rule to do such was rescinded. Among the variety of art periods that interested her was the very most modern. Her friends included Leo and Gertrude Stein whose paintings by Picasso and Matisse she knew well."

"In 1917 she completed her most ambitious and best known book, The Way of St. James. The three-volume work traces the pilgrimage trails to the shrine of St. James (Santiago de Compostela). Drawing from the important scholarship of A. Kingsley Porter (Lombard Architecture) and Chandler Post (Medieval Spanish Allegory), King’s book provided immense bibliographic review of the pertinent literature as well as publishing monuments not previously considered. Between 1912-15, King researched Pre-Romanesque Churches, the first of what she hoped would be a series on Spanish architecture. Although not published until 1924, it formed a survey of the buildings before those in the Way of St. James book." [drawing left from Street's book Some Account...]

"King left unfinished her nearly completed book on the art and architecture of Portugal. She suffered a number of strokes while researching it and died after her return to the United States in 1939. A manuscript completed in 1926, Heart of Spain, was completed by Agnes Mongan and published posthumously in 1941. Her ashes were deposited in the Library at Bryn Mawr."

"King’s scholarship is highly synthetic, combining literature from many disciplines to form her art histories. The impression is sometimes overwhelming, a romantic travelogue rather than analysis. As may be characteristic of the era in which she wrote, she often tries too hard to find stylistic influences in order to construct a linear view of her topic. In 1914 Bernard Berenson characterized King as "the best equipped student of Italian art in the United States."" [drawing: Street Unpub. Notes: Master Matthew's Porch Santiago]

"Biography: Saunders, Susanna Terrell. "Georgiana Goddard King (1871-1939): Educator and Pioneer in Medieval Spanish Art." in Women as Interpreters of the Visual Arts, 1820-1979. Sherman, Claire Richter and Holcomb, Adele M., eds. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1981, pp. 209-238; [obituaries:] "Miss Georgiana King, A Retired Professor." New York Times May 5, 1939, p. 28; Wethey, Harold. “American Pioneer in Hispanic Studies: Georgiana Goddard King.” Parnassus 11 (November 1939): 33-35."

"Bibliography: Pre-Romanesque Churches of Spain. New York: Longmans, Green and Co., 1924; - Sardinian Painting. New York: Longmans, Green and Co., 1923; revised and edited. - Street, George E. Some Account of Gothic Architecture in Spain. 2 vols. New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., 1914; - The Way of St. James. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1920; - “Castles in Spain.” Journal of the AIA 10 (Septemer 1921): 377-382; - “Spanish Cloisters.” Journal of the AIA 7 (November 1919): 481-488; - “Some Churches in Galicia.” Art Studies 1: 55-64; and Mongan, Agnes. - Heart of Spain. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1941." [drawing: Street Unpub. Notes: Leon Cathedral]

Women art historians make lists...

Women as Interpreters of the Visual Arts, 1820-1979, edited by Claire Richter Sherman with Adele M. Holcomb. Reviewed by Frima Fox Hofrichter. Woman's Art Journal, Vol. 2, No. 2 (Autumn, 1981 - Winter, 1982), pp. 61-63: A prominent art historian and former professor of mine [FFH] regurlarly explained to his graduate classes what he considered to be a fundamental methodological distinction: “male art historians analyze, and women art historians make lists.” With that bitter inspiration, I have been both curious and impatient waiting for the arrival of Women as Interpreters of the Visual Arts, 1820-1979, and I have been richly rewarded. (…) Women were excluded by law from faculty appointments at German universities until World War I…

Flipbooks & reviews: Volume 1 Flip Book Volume 2 Flip Book
Volume 3 Fip Book
TWoPL Flip Book
UNaRP Flip Book
SAoGAiS Flip Book Rsotpr Flip Book
MvH1 22-01-08
PP2 16-01-08 18 titels
MvH 26-11-07
For quick browsing in full text pdf documents:
Don't miss: -  
The Road To Santiago, Pilgrims of St. James (1957) - Walter Starkie Flip Book
Lombardic architecture; its origin, development and derivatives (1910)
Author: Rivoira, G. T. (Giovanni Teresio), 1849-1919. Volume 1 Flip Book
Lombardic architecture; its origin, development and derivatives (1910) Author: Rivoira, G. T. (Giovanni Teresio), 1849-1919. Volume 2 text-on-line: R. A. Fletcher, Saint James's Catapult: The Life and Times of Diego Gelmírez of Santiago de Compostela
Flip Book A history of architecture on the comparative method (1905), Author: Fletcher, Banister, 1833-1899 > p424: "Santiago was a pilgrimage centre of more than national importance."

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Volume 1


Volume 1
I. SETTING OUT 137 etc.


More from and about Georgiana Goddard King: (click on the titels)
A brief account of the military orders in Spain,
A citizen of the twilight,
Artificiality ,
Castles in Spain.
Comedies and legends for marionettes; a theatre for boys and girls,
Divagations on the Beatus ,
Early churches of Spain,
Fact and inference in the matter of jamb sculpture ,
George Edmund Street: unpublished notes and reprinted papers : with an essay , see
Heart of Spain, by Georgiana Goddard King and Agnes Mongan (published posthumously 1941)
Pittura sarda del Quattro-Cinquecento ,
Play of the sibyl Cassandro ,
Pre-Romanesque churches of Spain ,
Sardinian painting ,
Shepards and the kings ,
Some churches in Galicia ,
Soria, Osma, and Cuenca ,
Spanish abbeys ,
Spanish cloisters ,
The Bryn Mawr spelling book ,
The Lantern. Bryn Mawr College, 1898 ,
The play of the sibyl Cassandra ,
The problem of the Duero ,
The way of perfect love ,
The way of Saint James (Apostel Jacobus),
Towered cities.

More interesting books: [red highlighting by me -gb] - The Autobiography of Alice B Toklas (1933) - Author: Gertrude Stein - We went on to Madrid and there we met Georgiana King of Bryn Mawr, an old friend of Gertrude Stein from Baltimore days. Georgiana King wrote some of the most interesting of the early criticisms of Three Lives. She was then re-editing Street on the cathedrals of Spain and in connection with this she had wandered all over Spain. She gave us a great deal of very good advice. - A Backward Glance - Author: Edith Wharton - 14.4 - Years earlier, the reading of Monsieur Joseph Bedier's famous book, "Les Chansons Epiques," had roused in me a longing to follow the medieval pilgrims across the Pyrenees to the glorious shrine of Compostela; and after the war this desire, and the resolve to satisfy it, were reawakened by the appearance of two new books, Kingsley Porter's "Romanesque Sculpture of the Pilgrimage Roads," and Miss Georgiana King's "The Way of St James." - We began our pilgrimage at Saint Jean-Pied-de-Port, in the western Pyrenees, and descended thence into Spain by Roncevaux and Jaca. We were resolved to miss no stage of the ancient way, and from Jaca we went to Eunate, Logrono, Estella, Puenta de la Reina and Burgos, and thence, by way of Fromista, Carrion de los Condes and Sahagun, to Leon, and across the Cantabrian Mountains to Oviedo.

The roads in the Asturias and Galicia were still mediaeval, and our progress was slow; but our determination to carry out the pilgrimage to its end (or, I should rather say, to its beginning) bore us on over interminable humps and bumps to La Coruna, and thence to the solitary and mysterious point of Finisterre (Nuestra Senora de Finibus Terrae), where, as readers of the Golden Legend know, the decapitated body of St James the Greater landed in the boat carved out of stone in which it had been reverently laid on the distant shore of Palestine. From Finisterre, with imaginations raised to a high pitch of expectancy, we followed the saint back, past his halting-place at Padron, to the mighty church which enshrines him; and on arriving at Santiago de Compostela we found that our expectations had not been pitched high enough! Perhaps because this was the first journey of any length which I had made since the war, every mile of the way seemed fabulous and beautiful. But even the impression left by the Panteon de los Reyes at Leon, and the incomparable Camara Santa of Ovideo, faded in the radiance which streams from the singing sculptures of the Portico de la Gloria. Yet when I returned to Compostela a few years later, over smooth roads, and without the excitement of plunging into the unknown, the strange grandeur of that isolated city of palaces and monasteries, and the glory of its great church, impressed me more deeply than ever, and I rank Compostela not far behind Rome in the mysterious power of drawing back the traveller who has once seen it. - The Alice B. Toklas cookbook - Londen : Joseph, 1954. - Met reg. - Recepten met de daaraan verbonden anekdotes en herinneringen van de levensgezellin van de Amerikaanse schrijfster Gertrud Stein, die een beeld geven van het leven van twee Amerikaanse dames in Frankrijk tussen 1908 en 1946. - The Way of Saint James, Volume 1 – FOREWORD (…) For those who desire to secure facts while avoiding the context, a very careful Index is supplied. This makes it possible for the learned to look up a church unmolested by the dust of the highway, and even the learned may care to look into the pages for some of the churches which are, so far as may be ascertained, hitherto unpublished: of these are Torres, Bar­ badelo, Puerto Marin. The writer has looked into a good many old books and not a few remote and distinguished periodi­cals. The excursus into what may seem the field of comparative literature, indispensable to the argument, was long, laborious, and scrupulously at first hand. The religions of the Roman Empire were investigated in competent and first-rate authorities, which are enumerated in the bibliography. Cursor Mundi is cited so often, though an English work, because it is precisely what it calls itself, a Pilgrim of the World, that has gathered up an immense quantity of current and floating lore, and represents just what might be in the head of any stone­ cutter or master of the works. (…) Possibly it will be said that this little book is neither one thing nor the other, for it offers archaeology without jargon, and travel without flippancy. The writer's hope is that the learning, however small, may be judged sound, and the style not unworthy of it in being the ordinary vehicle, which is the daily speech of cul­tivated people: and that some worth and some pleasure may consist in the exact account of what was done and seen with the sense and in the light of a whole history and literature yet palpable and precious, though less familiar to the gentle reader than the immortal ambience of the Lombard plain and the hill-towns of Tuscany. (…)


SOME ACCOUNT OF GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE IN SPAIN flipbook [on pilgrimage in the early days] -
"In Spain the foreign traveller is a rare bird"

"So little has it been the fashion hitherto to explore the North of Spain in search of artistic treasures, that it was with some- what more than usual of the feeling that I was engaged in an adventure that I left Bayonne on my first journey West of the Pyrenees. Yet, in truth, so far as I have seen there is little in the way of adventure to anticipate even there in these matter- of-fact days ; and, some slight personal inconvenience excepted, there is nothing to prevent any traveller of ordinary energy doing all that I did with complete success, and an uncommon amount of pleasure.

For if there are no serious perils to be encountered, there is great novelty in almost everything that one sees; and whether we wish to study the people and their customs, or to visit the country and explore it in search of striking and picturesque scenery, or to examine, as I did, its treasures of ancient art, we shall find in every one of these respects so much that is unlike what we are used to, so much that is beautiful, and so much that is ancient and venerable by historic association, that we must be dull indeed if we do not inns fit to sleep in, or food fit to eat seem to me to be most enormously exaggerated.

It is true that I have purposely avoided travelling over the well-beaten Andalusian corner of Spain; and it is there, I suppose, that most English ideas of Spain and the Spaniards are formed. But in those parts to which my travels have taken me, but in which English travellers are not known so well as they are in Anda- lusia, I have certainly seldom found any difficulty in obtaining such creature-comforts as are essential.

Live on grapes and bread

Somewhat, it is true, depends upon the time of year in which a journey is undertaken; for in the spring, when the climate is most enjoyable, and the country gloriously green and bright with wavy crops of corn, the traveller has to depend entirely upon the cook for his food ; and has no other resource even where the cookery is intolerable to his English sense of smell, taste, and sight! But in the autumn, if he chances to travel, as I have twice done, just when the grapes are ripening, he may, if he choose, live almost entirely, and with no little advantage to his health, on grapes and bread, the latter being always pure, light, and good to a degree of which our English bakers have no conception ; and the former tasting as none but Spanish grapes do, and often costing nothing, or at any rate never more than a merely nominal sum.

On the whole, from my own experience, I should be inclined to recommend the autumn as the most favourable season for a Spanish journey, the weather being then generally more settled than in the spring. But, on the other hand, there is no doubt that any one who wishes to judge fairly of the scenery of Old and New Castile, of great part of Aragon, and of Leon, ought on no account to visit these provinces save in the spring.

Then I know no sight more glorious in its way than the sea of corn which is seen covering with its luxuriance and lovely colour the endless sweeps of the great landscape on all sides; whereas in the. autumn the same landscape looks parched and barren, burnt up as it is by the furious sun until it assumes everywhere a dusty hue, painful to the eye, and most monotonous and depressing to the mind; whilst the roads suffer sometimes from an accumulation of dust such as can scarcely be imagined by those who have never travelled along them.
Even at this season, however, there are some recompenses, and one of them is the power of realising somewhat of the beauty of an Eastern atmosphere, and the singular contrasts of colours which Eastern landscapes and skies generally present; for nowhere else have I ever seen sunsets more beautiful or more extraordinary than in the dreariest part of dreary Castile (i).

Inn, Fonda, Posada, Parador
So far as the inns and food are to be considered, I do not think there is much need ordinarily for violent grumbling. All ideas of English manners and customs must be carefully left behind; and if the travelling-clothes are donned with a full intention to do in Spain as Spain does, there is small fear of their owner suffering very much. But in Spain more than in [SPANISH INNS 3] most parts of Europe the foreign traveller is a rare bird, and if he attempt to import his own customs, he will unquestionably suffer for his pains, and give a good deal of unnecessary because fruitless trouble into the bargain.

Spanish inns are of various degrees, from the Posada, which is usually a muleteer's public-house, and the Parador, which is higher in rank, and where the diligence is generally to be found, up to the Fonda, which answers in idea to our hotel. In small country towns and villages a Posada is the only kind of inn to be found; and sometimes indeed large towns and cities have nothing better for the traveller's accommodation; but in the larger towns, and where there is much traffic, the Parador or Fonda will often be found to be as good as second-rate inns elsewhere usually are.

In a Posada it is generally easy to secure a bedroom which boasts at any rate of clean, wholesome linen, though of but little furniture; and in the remoter parts of the country as in Leon and Galicia there is no difficulty in securing in the poorest Posada plenty of bird or fish of quality good enough for a gourmand. The great objection to these small inns is, that nothing but the linen for the beds and the face of the waitingmaid ever seems to be washed. The water is carried to and fro in jars of the most curious and pleasant form and texture, and a few drops are now and then thrown on the floor of the comedor or eatingroom by way of laying the ancient dust; but washing in any higher sense than this is unknown.

It must be said also, that the entrance is common to the mules and the guests; and that after passing through an archway where the atmosphere is only too lively with fleas, and where the stench is something too dreadful to be borne with ease, you turn into the staircase door, and up the stairs, only to find when you have mounted that you have to live, sleep, and eat above the mules; and (unless you are very lucky), when you open your window, to smell as badly as ever all the sweets of their uncleaned and, I suppose, uncleanable stables 1

The kitchen is almost always on the first floor; and here one may stand by the wood fire and see the dinner cooked in a mysterious fashion in a number of little earthen jars planted here and there among the embers ; whilst one admires the small but precious array of quaint crockery on the shelves, and tries to induce the cooking-maid to add somewhat less of the usual flavouring to one at any rate of her stews !

Olla podrida ,
I confess, in spite of all this, to a grateful recollection of many a Posada, to a [4 GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE IN SPAIN] hearty appreciation of an olla podrida a dish abused most by those who know least about its virtues and to some suspicion that many of the humblest have treasures in their unsophisticated cooks for which one longs in vain in our own English country-town inns, which of all I have seen seem to me to be the worst, in their affectation of superiority, and in their utter inability to support their claim with anything more worthy than bad mutton-chops, doubtful beer, and wine about which there is no kind of doubt whatever!

So much for the Posada. In the Parador or the Fonda the entertainment is generally very fair, whilst in many the sleeping-rooms are all that need be desired. But even here the smell of the stables is often so intolerable as to make it very desirable to find other quarters; and about this there is seldom if ever any difficulty; for in almost all towns of moderate size there are plenty of houses where lodgers are taken in for a night; and in these one may generally depend upon cleanliness, the absence of mules, and fairly-good cookery.

Eat when the Spaniard eats

In all whether inns or lodgings it is well to eat when the Spaniard eats, and not to attempt to do so at any other time, else much precious time and temper will assuredly be lost, and with results entirely incommensurate with the sacrifice. At whatever hour you rise the maid will bring a small cup of chocolate and a vast glass of water, with some sweet biscuits or toast. And you must learn to love this precious cup, if you intend to love Spain: nowhere else will you get chocolate so invariably well made; and if after you have taken it you drink heartily of the water, you have nothing to fear, and may work hard without fainting till you get your morning meal, at about eleven o'clock. This is a dinner, and can be followed by another at sunset, after which you can generally find in a cafe either coffee, chocolate, or iced lemonade, whilst you watch the relaxation of the domino-playing natives (2). Finally, there is seldom anything to quarrel with in the bill, which is usually made out for the entertainment at so much a day; and when this has been paid, the people of the house are sure to bid you God speed a dios with pleasant faces and kind hearts.

The journeys which I have undertaken in Spain have all been made with the one object of inspecting the remains of Gothic building which I either hoped to, or knew I should, find there. My knowledge of Spanish scenery has therefore been very much limited, and it is only incidentally that I am able to speak at all [TOURS 5] of it. Yet I have seen enough to be able to recommend a great extent of country as thoroughly worthy of exploration by those who care for nought but picturesque scenery.

The greater part of Catalonia, much of Aragon, Navarre, the north of Leon, Galicia, and the Asturias, are all full of lovely scenery, and even in other districts, where the country is not interesting, there seem always to be ranges of mountains in sight, which, with the singular purity of the atmosphere through which they are seen, never fail of leaving pleasant recollections in one's mind. Such, for example, is the view of the Guadarrama Mountains from Madrid a view which redeems that otherwise forlorn situation for a great city, and gives it the only charm it has. Such again are the mountain backgrounds of Leon, Avila, and Segovia.

3 Spanish tours
In my first Spanish tour I entered the country from Bayonne, travelled thence by Vitoria to Burgos, Palencia, Valladolid, Madrid, Alcala, Toledo, Valencia, Barcelona, Lerida, and by Gerona to Perpinan. In the second I went again to Gerona, thence to Barcelona, Tarragona, Manresa, Lerida, Huesca, Zara- goza, Tudela, Pamplona, and so to Bayonne; and in the third and last I went by Bayonne to Pamplona, Tudela, Tarazona, Siguenza, Guadalajara, Madrid, Toledo, Segovia, Avila, Salamanca, Zamora, Benavente, Leon, Astorga, Lugo, Santiago, la Coruna, and thence back by Valladolid and Burgos to San Sebastian and Bayonne.

Tours such as these have, I think, given me a fair chance of forming a right judgment as to most of the features of Spanish architecture ; but it were worse than foolish to suppose that they have been in the slightest degree exhaustive, for there are large tracts of country which I have not visited at all, others in which I have seen one or two only out of many towns which are undoubtedly full of interesting subjects to the architect, and others again in which I have been too much pressed for time. Yet I hardly know that I need apologise for my neglect to see more when I consider that, up to the present time, so far as I know, no architect has ever described the buildings which I have visited, and indeed no accurate or reliable information is to be obtained as to their exact character, or age, or history.

The real subject for apology is one over which I have had, in truth, no control. The speed with which I have been compelled to travel, and the rapidity with which I have been obliged to sketch and take dimensions of everything I have seen, have often, no doubt, led to my making errors, for which, wherever they exist, I am sincerely sorry. In truth, the work I undertook was [6 GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE IN SPAIN] hardly the mere relaxation from my ordinary artistic labour for which it was first of all intended, and has been increased not a little by the labour which I have undertaken in the attempt to fix by documentary evidence, where possible, the ages of the various parts of the buildings I have described."

What is Gothic architecture?
"Some of the best writers on the subject, Lethaby for example, whose work is to be recommended for its energy, interest and scholarliness, make Gothic to be equivalent to everything specifically medieval in art, which would include stained glass, manuscripts, poetry, etc. These writers point out that it was not until the nineteenth century archaeologists had come, under the leadership of De Caumont and his fellows, that men began to give a narrow usage to the word. "The word," writes Arthur Kingsley Porter, "first applied as an epithet of approbrium to all medieval buildings by the architects of the Renaissance, was given a technical meaning by De Caumont and the archaeologists of the nineteenth century, who employed it to distinguish buildings with pointed arches from those with round arches, which were called Romanesque." Some writers continue to refuse to use the word at all; Rickman prefers "English Architecture"; and Britton, "Christian Architecture." Dr. Albert G. Mackey says, "that Gothic architecture has therefore very justly been called 'The Architecture of Freemasonry;'" but of that more anon." - Porter, Arthur Kingsley. Spanish Romanesque sculpture. Reprint, 2 volumes in 1. Vol. I: 89 illustrations on plates 1-62, printed one side only, with captions on facing pages + [xv] + 132 + [1] pp. Vol. II: 134 illustrations on plates 63-160 + [xvi] + 91 + [1] pp. Extensive notes in both volumes; index to both volumes in volume II. - USD 70.00 - EUR 48.23 ... 08portuoft - Romanesque sculpture of the pilgrimage roads (1923) - Author: Porter, Arthur Kingsley, 1883-1933 - Volume VIII (of X) Auvergne & Dauphine - v. 1. Text.-v. 2-10, plates: v. 2. Burgundy.-v. 3. Tuscany and Apulia.-v. 4. Aquitaine.-v. 5. Catalonia and Aragon.-v. 6. Castile, Asturias, Galicia.-v. 7. Western France.-v. 8. Auvergne and Dauphine.-v. 9. Provence.-v. 10. Ile-de-France - Flip Book, etc.
Collected sources for (flip) books & reviews on King’s 1920 classic, architecture, art, plays, etc.:

Open Library : -search in the Open Library on Georgiana Goddard King: 16 titels of which 5 full-text-flip-books
- collection Georgiana Goddard King:
A brief account of the military orders in Spain (The Hispanic Society of America, 1921)
A brief account of the military orders in Spain (AMS Press, 1978, c1921)
A citizen of the twilight (Bryn Mawr college;, Longmans, Green and co., 1921)
Comedies and legends for marionettes; a theatre for boys and girls (The Macmillan Company & Co., ltd., 1904)
Mudéjar (Bryn Mawr College;, Longmans, Green and Co., 1927)
Pre-Romanesque churches of Spain (Bryn Mawr College;, Longmans, Green and Co., 1924)
The play of the sibyl Cassandra (Bryn Mawr college;, Lolngmans, Green and co., 1921)
The way of perfect love (New York : The Macmillan company, 1908)
The way of Saint James (G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1920)
The way of Saint James (AMS Press, 1980) - The Way of Saint James by Georgiana Goddard King, M.A., in three volumes, Volume 1, flip book - Volume 2, flip book - Volume 3, flip book - Way of Perfect Love by Georgiana Goddard King, M.A., New York, 1908, flip book
- Way of Saint James, review by Marcel van Huystee, Nijmegen/Holland, January 22nd 2008
The Way of Saint James by Georgiana Goddard King: Book 3: 'The Bourne' & Book 4: 'Homeward', review by PILGRIMSPLAZA, The Hague/Holland, January 16th 2008

Internet Archive (Waybackmachine) :
- ... 08portuoft ROMANESQE SCULPTURE OF THE PILGRIMAGE ROAD BY A. KINGSLEY PORTER IN TEN VOLUMES, VOLUME VIII, ILLUSTRATIONS, AUVERGNE AND DAUPHINE, BOSTON, 1923, flip book - Lombardic architecture; its origin, development and derivatives (1910) - Author: Rivoira, G. T. (Giovanni Teresio), 1849-1919. Volume 1, flip book
- Lombardic architecture; its origin, development and derivatives (1910) - Author: Rivoira, G. T. (Giovanni Teresio), 1849-1919. Volume 2; flip book
- A history of architecture on the comparative method (1905), Author: Fletcher, Banister, 1833-1899 > p424: "Santiago was a pilgrimage centre of more than national importance." flip book

Other authors and sources:
- R. A. Fletcher, Saint James's Catapult:
The Life and Times of Diego Gelmírez of Santiago de Compostela; text-on-line
- Marcel van Huystee's review (in English) of 'The Way of Saint James' by Georgiana King, Pilgrimsplaza, 26-11-07


More interesting full-text-on-line books - search on author: - The Worlds of Alfonso the Learned and James the Conqueror, Robert I. Burns, S.J. - Saint James's Catapult : The Life and Times of Diego Gelmírez of Santiago de Compostela, Richard A. Fletcher - The Chronicle of James I, King of Aragon, Surnamed The Conqueror, CHRONICLE OF JAMES I OF ARAGON, John Forster, trans. - A History of the Inquisition of Spain, Volume 1, Henry Charles Lea - The Chronicle of Alfonso the Emperor: A Translation of the Chronica Adefonsi imperatoris, with study and notes, Glenn Edward Lipskey - Luther's Ghost in Spain (1517-1546), John Edward Longhurst - Paganism and Pagan Survivals in Spain up to
the Fall of the Visigothic Kingdom, Stephen McKenna - The Library of Iberian Resources Online, A History of Spain and Portugal, Volume One, Stanley G. Payne - THE LIBRARY OF IBERIAN RESOURCES ONLINE, The Visigothic Code: (Forum judicum), ed. S. P. Scott - THE LIBRARY OF IBERIAN RESOURCES ONLINE, CHRISTIAN MARTYRS IN MUSLIM SPAIN, Kenneth Baxter Wolf - search on titles: - THE LIBRARY OF IBERIAN RESOURCES ONLINE - ISLAMIC AND CHRISTIAN SPAIN IN THE EARLY MIDDLE AGES, Comparative Perspectives on Social and Cultural Formation, Thomas F. Glick - "The Spanish and Portuguese Reconquest, 1095-1492," - by Charles Julian Bishko (From A History of the Crusades, vol. 3: The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries, ed. Harry W. Hazard, University of Wisconsin Press, 1975) - search on Arthur Kingsley Porter: - Platform Middeleeuws Latijn - Op woensdag 17 mei 2006 is het Platform Middeleeuws Latijn opgericht, op initiatief van het Huygens Instituut en met brede steun van de vakgenoten aan de universiteiten en elders. - Voor de studiemiddag Middeleeuws Latijn in de hal van de Koninklijke Bibliotheek te Den Haag meldden zich 40 à 45 belangstellenden. De middag werd geopend door gastspreker Jan Ziolkowski, Arthur Kingsley Porter Professor of Medieval Latin in Harvard en nu (nog even) fellow aan het Netherlands Institute of Advanced Studies te Wassenaar. Hij hield een lezing over het begrip “autoriteit”, beginnend bij de anti-autoritaire beweging van eind jaren 60 van de vorige eeuw, en uitwaaierend naar vele eeuwen, onder andere de twaalfde. Het was een bijzonder breed, boeiend en rijk exposé, dat de ontwikkeling nieuwe methodes van intellectuele discussie (zoals we die bijvoorbeeld kennen van Abelards Sic et non) in verband bracht met de groeiende praktijk van het op de proef stellen van autoriteiten. De twaalfde eeuw in brede zin is een keerpunt in deze ontwikkeling.
JSTOR: Medieval Studies in Memory of A. Kingsley Porter - How mediaevalists in many lands mourn as a personal loss the passing of Arthur Kingsley Porter, who met an untimely death ... It has a dual objective- the memory of Kingsley Porter and the study of Mediaeval Art. In both regards the work represents a highly important contribution, ...

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